A Hypothesis for a Membrane Theory of Gravity
Andrew L. Bender (
Abstract: Proposed is a modification of gravity in M-Theory that could
successfully combine relativity and quantum mechanics by means of a
membrane (brane) theory of gravity. The force of gravity would be produced by
the curvature of our brane by the vibrations of individual strings of
matter in the three gravity dimensions of M-Theory. Gravity’s weakness
would be due to the size of our membrane relative to the Planck length
of an individual string. If the forces of electromagnetism and gravity were
roughly equivalent when our brane was the Planck length, then as it
expanded to its current size, the strength of gravity would have decreased in
proportion to our membrane’s size, roughly calculated to have a maximum
radius of 526 trillion light-years. This theory allows for a direct method
of energy transfer from membrane collision to individual virtual strings
present within the brane at the instant of the collision. This explains the
creation of our universe without a singularity while keeping physics intact
throughout the big splash. Dark matter and dark energy are revealed to
be vibrations of our membrane left over from the original collision that
created our universe. The relaxation of those vibrations (whose potential
energy is being converted into kinetic energy) causes spacetime to expand
more rapidly as it ages and to accelerate at what appears to be a constant
rate until all dark matter relaxes completely, stopping the acceleration.
Additionally, several methods of observational confirmation of this theory
(and therefore string theory as well) are proposed.
Ed Witten’s M-theory has brought string theory into the 21st century by combining the five previous string theories into one brilliant nearly all-encompassing theory of our universe. However, this theory leaves one thing lacking: a satisfactory theory of gravity. In M-Theory, gravity is made of closed-loop strings which can escape our membrane (brane for short) as they are not tied to it creating “disappearing gravitons”. However, the only way to make this concept work is to introduce a highly unlikely parallel membrane from which gravity leaks to us as Princeton’s Lisa Randall has postulated.1 This is highly unlikely because in membrane gravity, membranes arise randomly from a froth of bubbling branes that are brought into existence by the agitation of spacetime itself by quantum noise. The likelihood of two branes evolving such a symbiotic relationship from a random process seems highly unlikely.
Physicists are currently looking for evidence of closed-loop “disappearing gravitons” in atom smashers as we speak. According to membrane gravity, they will not succeed. Our universe is a highly elegant and efficient creation, and leaking gravitons just do not seem to fit squarely into that elegant universe. The first problem with these loops of leaking gravitons, and therefore current M-theory, is that it has no clear mechanism for energy transfer from a membrane collision directly to the other brane. Other problems include its failure to predict dark matter and energy and having to rely on parallel universes in order for gravity to work properly.
A much more likely possibility is a membrane theory of gravity. This " theory of everything " states that gravity is not a leaking closed-loop string, but that all strings are actually Planck-length tubes of our membrane itself. These tubes are generated from our brane by quantum noise in the form of virtual strings. According to Brian Greene, Michio Kaku, and a number of other physicists, even nothing is highly unstable on the quantum level. Virtual strings are tiny disturbances in our brane generated by quantum noise. Every now and then, two of these strings are disturbed into existence, one vibrating the opposite of the other, and both being entangled at the quantum level. (Entanglement means that they are connected through our brane, and that they must vibrate the opposite of one another since they were formed from the same pair of virtual strings.) These virtual strings exist for fleeting moments as they orbit one another, and then combine back into nothingness as their waves cancel each other out.
Exactly how would a collision of membranes transfer energy into a new universe? Current theory is not entirely clear on this subject, and the result is a big bang starting from a singularity, which is mathematically impossible. The beauty of string theory is that it does away with the need for any singularities because the smallest anything can be is the Planck length of 10-33 cm (10-35 m), as that is the size of a single string. (The Planck length is also the smallest anything can be in standard physics, but that didn’t stop them from trying to create a singularity.) The core of a type I black hole would no longer be a singularity, but an extremely small core less than a meter to a few meters across of compactified strings. A type II black hole (supermassive) may have a core a few tens of meters accross, well within its event horizon. Information would not be destroyed within a black hole, as it would be within a singularity, but is recycled as Hawking radiation with the same information as the matter that was swallowed by the hole due to quantum teleportation.2 One virtual string falls into the black hole, and the other is accelerated away from it. The string that fell into the hole annihilates a string whose quantum information is teleported to the string that escaped from the event horizon. Like the black hole, our universe would no longer begin from a singularity either.
Singularities are likely not the answer for either black holes or the beginning of our universe, because they also create nonsensical mathematics. After considering how branes collide and vibrate, it appeared there had to be a direct method of energy transfer from each membrane to the new universe at the fundamental level of each string. Strings and branes interacting with each other seems possible as they are both made of the same material, with one being stretched out to an enormous degree compared to the other. If two of these membranes were to collide, the virtual strings that existed within each brane at the exact moment of impact (about five percent of our universe was in the process of generating virtual strings at the moment of impact) would be vibrated into strings of matter and antimatter. This is possible because the strings of membrane gravity are two-dimensional tubes of our brane itself. When vibrated by a big splash collision of branes, these strings will pull their ends together the more violently they are struck. (See Fig. 1.) Therefore, our membrane now is spacetime. According to string theory and Brian Greene the higher the frequency of a string, the more massive the particle it emulates. This is also true in membrane gravity. The higher the frequency of a string, the more energy it has, and the further its vibrations will curve the membrane around it, creating the force of gravity.
Fig. 1. A representation of an “MRI view” of a membrane, strings, and their curvature of spacetime. In this sliced-open diagram, the lines on the left and right represent our membrane and its curvature. The three horizontal strings (hollow two-dimensional tubes) are (top) a virtual string that hardly vibrates at all and is basically a hollow tube that was separated from our brane by quantum noise; (middle) a string that represents a quark or other massive particle given energy from the big splash; and (bottom) a string that represents a more massive strange, charmed, or similar quark given additional energy from a high-velocity impact with another string whose mass (vibrations) curves our brane even farther, creating the force of gravity. The more periods the string has (that is, the more rapidly it vibrates), the more it contracts the membrane due to its vibrations and motion and the more massive the particle it emulates.
By eliminating the closed-loop strings of M-Theory and replacing them with the simple and straight forward curvature of our membrane caused by the vibrations of strings of matter, we eliminate the necessity of relying on a contortion of parallel universes to explain the laws of nature. Our universe is an elegant creation, even if its mathematics are turning out to be more complex than we may like. Simplicity requires we recognize that the most likely solution is membrane gravity, not an unlikely relationship between randomly generated membranes.
In this model, our membrane grew from a quantum noise created Planck length bubble into an enormous three spatial dimensional brane by expanding from the vacuum around it, and quantum noise within it when it was very small. Over time, this bubble would expand to the size of a universe, its surface area expanding inside and out. As it did, the effect of vibrations of standard Planck-length strings of matter (which curve our brane) would get weaker and weaker the more our brane grew larger and larger, decreasing the force of gravity as it grew as each vibrating string curved a smaller and smaller percentage of our brane.
The rest of our multiverse would be generating more of these multidimensional membranes from the froth of quantum noise at the Planck length, and over time, a vast number of branes of various dimensions would be generated. It is only a matter of time before two of these branes collide with one another, being given momentum from their creation and the quantum disturbances within them and vacuum around them. In this model, time is no longer a dimension, but the rate at which individual strings vibrate.
In this theory, it is simple string vibrations and dynamics that create the effect of gravity. Gravitons are simply tiny ripples of our brane generated in the fusion of hydrogen and other elements in the core of a star. Like dropping from the bottom string diagram in Fig. 1 to the middle string diagram, the string pushes a tiny ripple of our brane as it releases its energy. This sends a vibrating brane ripple away from the fused element, which we are most likely detecting in our gravity wave telescopes and not quantum noise in a holographic universe as some physicists believe as the noise is. As the noise is found at 10-16 meters, and not 10-35m as quantum noise is supposed to be, the obvious solution is that we are detecting membrane gravity’s gravitons, and not quantum noise.3 This hypothesis can be tested by placing gravity wave detectors at the orbit of Saturn, as the "gravitons" (membrane ripples) will have grown in size the further from the sun they travel.
According to membrane gravity, if we run the expansion of the universe backward from its current point to the big bang itself, the previous theorists simply went too far back and assumed that the universe started from a single one-dimensional point before it inflated. Instead of the singularity of the standard model of the big bang, membrane gravity states that when our brane collided with another one, the vast majority of that energy was transferred directly to each membrane in the form of vibrations, which, in this theory, become dark matter as those vibrations cause our brane to contract, increasing the amount of gravity in our universe (dark matter) as our brane shrinks and collapses due to those vibrations. Additionally, at the moment of impact of the big splash, approximately 5 percent of the brane would be in the process of generating virtual strings. This creates an outlet other than the brane itself where the energy of the collision could go, because strings are now made of our brane itself. This collision transfers those vibrations directly to the virtual strings within the brane at that instant, creating all matter and antimatter in the big splash.
After our brane contracted due to the collision, our universe contracted to what could have been hundreds of millions to a billion light years across. (Close to its size when it emitted the cosmic background radiation.) The universe would have cooled from the hot plasma of the collision and undergone its phase change perhaps just a few seconds after the collision due to its much larger starting size.
In the areas of our brane that collided with the other brane, some peaks on the surface of our brane would collide with peaks of the colliding brane, generating areas of higher matter and antimatter creation. Troughs colliding would create smaller amounts of antimatter, if any, and more normal matter would have been created in these regions. All the antimatter would have instantly been annihilated, and strings vibrated into quantum entangled quarks and electrons would have joined together into the first atoms of hydrogen, helium and a few other trace elements in our universe. (After our universe went through its phase change and emitted the cosmic background radiation.) If some strings were left over from previous collisions of our brane, those strings would also be available to be vibrated further into matter and antimatter strings during the collision.
The small percentage of energy that got through to the virtual strings within each brane vibrated the three gravity dimensions of each string. This directly transferred energy to the non-energetic virtual strings within each membrane, creating matter and antimatter quarks and electrons in up and down pairs. The major brane vibrations that act as dark matter vibrate over large areas thousands of light-years across and even form dark matter galaxies. Huge chains of galaxy clusters are created, attracted to these long strands of dark matter, and form an enormous lattice of strands following the brane vibrations and appearing similar to a three-dimensional spider’s web. Membrane gravity would help to explain these huge structures as well, because as our brane was compressed during the collision due to its vibrations, a network of crossing membrane waves would form.
These vibrations of the membrane itself would cause it to contract quickly into a much smaller volume as the membrane vibrates rapidly back and forth. It would form huge waves, both on the outer surface and throughout the inner structure of a four dimensional membrane (see fig. 2). The dark matter resulting from brane vibrations could also cause the gases of the early universe to collapse and form into stars and galaxies earlier than one billion years after the big splash, much more rapidly than current theories including the standard model and M-Theory can explain satisfactorily. In addition, because our brane was contracting at the same time our universe was being formed, our universe was created at speeds effectively faster than light. As our universe is currently expanding faster than light due to the expansion of our brane as our universe expands, the same process happened in reverse when our brane collided with another.
Fig. 2. A higher-dimensional view of two four-branes (with three spatial dimensions and one time dimension) colliding. As they collide, they create “big splashes” on each membrane radiating from the point of the collision. The vibrations would similarly reverberate throughout the center of our spherical (or tarus-shaped) four-dimensional brane, creating dense vibrating ripples of membrane (dark matter) throughout the new universe. The vibrations form a network of dark matter which helps to accelerate the formation of the new universe as the young gases are attracted to these dense vibrating dark matter regions. Additionally, this collision starts off our universe at a size much larger than previously theorized, doing away with the need for any singularities. Therefore, physics never breaks down in this model of our universe, unlike the big bang model where all of physics breaks down before 10-43 seconds into the expansion from the so-called singularity. The universe simply contracts from the impact, and then starts to expand from a size possibly hundreds of millions to a few billion light-years across. These branes would ripple slightly due to quantum noise and virtual strings generated when they first formed long before the collision, and those ripples would be imprinted on our universe. They appear as areas of higher and lower energy impacts where the ripples constructively and destructively interfere with each other at the instant of the big splash. This pattern is visible in the cosmic background radiation left over from the splash.
The vibrations of our membrane are not contained within a small, confined space as the vibrations of regular strings are. (Strings vibrating within our universe that act as matter and energy and are confined to the Planck length.) Because brane vibrations have our entire membrane to expand and vibrate throughout, the vibrations will dissipate throughout our entire brane. They radiate according to the inverse square law (GM/r2) as the waves expand in three dimensions and dissipate throughout our universe into the rest of our brane (accounting for gravity’s weakness). As our universe expands, the dark matter brane vibrations will slowly be converted into dark energy as those vibrations relax and dissipate; pushing points that were close together farther apart (see fig. 3). This will happen as the vibrations of our membrane occur less frequently, especially in the “empty” regions of the universe between galaxy cluster strands.
The cooling of our universe will start to convert the potential energy of our vibrating membrane (dark matter) into kinetic energy (dark energy). This release of potential stored vibrating energy pushes our universe apart, accelerating slowly at first, and then increasing in speed until it relaxes nearly to its original size before the splash at which point the acceleration decreases and eventually will end (as shown in fig. 3). During the early universe, the large number of massive gravitational waves produced from orbiting black holes, supernovae, hypernovae, and other gravity wave sources may have aided in sustaining our membrane’s rapid vibrations, preventing our universe from accelerating faster in the beginning.
Fig. 3. Vibrations relaxing and the acceleration of our universe’s expansion due to membrane gravity (not to scale). As our membrane relaxes, two points that were closer together (A) get pushed farther apart (B) as the spacetime between them vibrates less frequently and becomes less compressed. As this occurs throughout our universe, it expands more rapidly until the brane relaxes almost completely, at which point the expansion slows down. Because of the rate at which brane vibrations relax, spreading out spacetime, dark energy (C) the rate of acceleration of our universe should appear fairly constant in the beginning. The universe’s acceleration begins slowly after the big splash due to the contraction of our brane, and its rapid vibrations from the collision. It continues to accelerate as dark matter is being constantly converted into dark energy (first in the starless regions of space), and will eventually slow down as the brane expands to its original, relaxed form, which can expand no further. This is much more intellectually satisfying than believing in a “big rip” where our universe tears itself apart. Again, cosmologists are jumping the gun, and taking their observations to the extreme end of the spectrum. As we never started from a singularity, we will never have a “big rip” either.
As our universe ages, the expanding empty (starless) spheres of space between galaxy clusters strands begin to have very few gravity waves passing through them at the same time our brane relaxes even further in those areas. This brane relaxation begins to accelerate the expansion of our universe. Because these regions are isolated from the network of brane vibrations created during the big splash and from any gravity wave sources within faraway galaxies, any vibrating membrane waves in these regions begin to relax and dissipate by this time. Due to membrane gravity, the relaxation of any original brane vibrations in these regions cause their dark matter vibrations to be converted into dark energy expansion forces. The brane relaxes and spreads back out the most in these regions first, as they will elsewhere throughout our brane as its vibrations continue to relax and accelerate our expansion.
As our universe appears to expand close to its original size before the collision, our galaxies will begin to fly apart as their dark matter halos begin to relax their dark matter brane vibrations. Eventually, the stars themselves will begin to get dimmer and dimmer as the dark matter in our galaxy dissipates, and the stars fuse less gas together.
Membrane gravity could also explain other mysteries of our universe: why gravity is so weak and why so little of our universe’s mass is made up of normal matter and energy that we can see. Our membrane began life as a single four dimensional string. This brane eventually inflated to a size much larger than our own universe appears. When our brane was young and small, its interactions (if any) with strings of matter could have been much more powerful, similar to the electromagnetic interactions of strings today, which are 1039 times more powerful than the force of gravity.4
As our brane grew from the size of a string to a size larger than a galaxy and so on, its surface area inside and out continued to expand. As it did, the effect of vibrations of standard Planck-length strings of matter got weaker and weaker as those tiny strings stayed the same size while our brane continued to expand. The gravitational effect that only one of our strings of matter, such as a quark or electron, has on our brane continued to decrease as it had a smaller percentage of the membrane’s surface area to vibrate against. When our brane finally reaches its current size, the vibrations of strings of matter have an infinitesimal effect on the tiny percentage of the brane that they vibrate within. Therefore, according to membrane gravity, gravity’s weakness should be directly proportional to the size of our brane.
Because of this, it may be possible to calculate the approximate size of our brane. We do this by comparing the strength of gravity to the electromagnetic force (as they may have been comparable when our brane and a single string of matter were of equal size) and then by factoring in the distance that the electromagnetic force acts over. The approximate distance between a proton and an electron in a hydrogen atom (the Bohr radius) is about 5 * 10-11 m. If we multiply this by the difference in power between the two forces (1039 times), we get 5 * 1030 m. A light-year is 9.5 * 1015 m, so if we divide our result by the distance in a light-year, we get 5.26 * 1014 light years or a maximum radius of 526 trillion light-years across (roughly). If our universe is at least 156 billion light-years in diameter as a recent WMAP science team study found5, then our membrane could be nearly seven thousand times larger than our universe currently appears. As our universe continues to expand, it relaxes back to its original size, and it shouldn’t reach that maximum size for hundreds of billions of years.
A membrane theory of gravity could change our idea of what multiple universes are within other membranes. Current theory states that the initial conditions of a big bang or big splat determine all the physics of the universe created from it. It is currently believed that other universes will all be very different, and that it just happens to be luck that initial conditions were so favorable for life in our universe. However, if membrane gravity is correct, all universes created within four-branes like ours will have nearly identical laws of physics. Only the strength of gravity will differ, depending on the size of the brane the universe is created within. Thus the smaller the brane, the stronger the force of gravityand the more powerful the collision that creates the universe, the more energetic the matter and antimatter strings that will be created within it.
If a brane collides more gently than ours did, less matter and hardly any antimatter would be created within it. If the brane were smaller than ours as well, its stronger force of gravity could compensate for the smaller collision to create a viable universe, habitable by creatures like us. If, on the other hand, an enormous four-brane has a minor collision with another brane, the small amount of matter created (and its weak gravity) would make for a universe of diffuse gas that may never form a single star. In five-brane, six-brane, and higher spatial dimensional universes, however, the laws of physics would be completely different but the same for each number of dimensions (except for gravity, which would again vary on brane size and the number of spatial dimensions each brane has).
If membrane gravity is correct, it should be verifiable through observation using several methods. We could calculate the average mass of space in the universe during the first eight billion years of its existence, mostly in the “empty” regions of diffuse gas between galaxy clusters, and compare those results with the average mass of empty space in the universe during the last five billion years. If our results show that dark matter has been disappearing as our universe’s expansion has been accelerating (and losing mass during the last five billion years), it would confirm the membrane theory of gravity and validate string theory. Gravity would not be leaking from our universe as M-Theory predicts or originate from a membrane or dimension just slightly away from our own as Lisa Randall postulates. Another method of confirmation would be to measure the size of dark matter waves over time. If, the further we look back in time, the more compact dark matter clusters (vibrations) are, this would further support membrane gravity.
The energy required to create an electron is much less than the energy required to create a positron, and the same relationship applies to all other types of matter and their antimatter partners. If our universe was created by a collision of branes which transferred kinetic energy directly to each brane, and 5 percent of that energy was transferred directly to the virtual strings within our brane, then the ratio of matter to antimatter during the splash should be directly proportional to the amount of energy required to create that matter and antimatter. If the collision imparted its energy directly to the virtual strings, it should do so according to the laws of physics and not break down like the big bang model. After the splash, when matter condenses out, the splash behaves exactly as the big bang model does, with the same ratios of elements created. Observation supports this. The elements created in the big splash are directly proportional to the amount of energy it takes to create them, supporting this theory of brane gravity.
Because our universe could have been created at such a large size (possibly hundreds of millions to billions of light-years across), the quarks and electrons created in the collision may have condensed almost instantly (or at least much more rapidly.) This would mean that the cosmic background radiation may not have been created 380,000 years after the big splash as is currently thought. Instead, the CBR could have been created very shortly after the splash (possibly within seconds) and much more rapidly than the standard model predicts. Our membrane appeared to contract to this size after the collision that created it, then appeared to expand from this larger size. There was no singularity, and the laws of physics never broke down. Our universe would have rapidly cooled and coalesced from hot quarks and electrons into hydrogen and helium atoms due to the relatively large size of the early universe. This would mean that when we look at the CBR, we could be looking almost directly at an image of the creation of the universe itself. According to the WMAP science team, our universe is at least 156 billion light-years in diameter after 13.7 billion years of expansion.
Another recent piece of evidence in favor of membrane gravity is the Hubble Space Telescope study of 2003 by quantum gravity physicists. They found that the universe is not as “pixilated” as it should appear if spacetime were pixilated at the Planck length of 10-35m (the smallest anything can be according to string theory, as well as the length of a single string). Quantum gravity physicists believe that photons traveling through our universe would move from “pixel to pixel” of Planck length segments as they travel.6 Images of objects that are farther away should appear pixilated compared to nearby objects as more distant photons travel through more segments of space. However, these results were not found. Photos of both nearby and distant objects appeared equally clear. Instead of casting doubt on the Planck length or other solid physics, it is further support for membrane gravity that photons are not traveling through “pixilated” space. Rather they are traveling through a perfectly smooth membrane, which would not blur photons in the least.
We need to move from a particle-based view of our universe to a membrane and string-based view. Researchers are having trouble figuring out dark matter, dark energy, and many other recent discoveries because they view our universe as a collection of particles within a vacuum with “nothing” beyond the edge of our universe. Even M-Theory currently suffers from this view as it still does not see our membrane as the source of gravity, with each string currently behaving like a particle in standard physics. The closed-loop graviton string is what is holding M-Theory back from becoming a complete theory of physics. The picture of our universe becomes so much clearer when we realize that we live within a fluid-like membrane that is the source of our gravitational force. Because of this, all matter and energy are simply vibrating strings, formed from and connected to our membrane, that travel through our brane and whose vibrations generate all the forces of nature that we observe.
Additionally, inflationary models of the big bang had been under tighter scrutiny in recent years as results from WMAP were analyzed, and the results did not quite match predictions. This was a very difficult feat, considering there were so many different predictions. The inflationary models have many problems, one of which is quite similar to complaints about the first five string theories before they were unified. There were so many different inflationary approaches, with such a wide range of predictions that it has been suggested inflation could never be disproved by observation!7 Here is another problem with inflationary models: What caused the inflation and the “bang” in the first place? This question can never be answered with current models, which is very frustrating to say the least. Some physicists seem not to mind being unknowledgeable of what event actually triggered our universe’s creation and expansion. However, it seems vital for any comprehensive theory of our universe to be able to predict how our universe began and how it will end.
In a Science magazine article by Adrian Cho, the latest finding by Christoph Adami, of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and the Keck Graduate Institute in Claremont, that quantum entanglement is linked to gravity could be one of the strongest pieces of evidence yet for membrane gravity.8 If two particles such as electrons are entangled, an observer could manipulate the observation of one of the particles, and cause it to spin up. (Electrons have two types of spin: one called “up” and the other, “down.”) When the particle spins up, they would instantly know that the other entangled particle’s spin is down, no matter how far away it is. This interaction makes sense with membrane gravity, because all matter and energy in our universe are connected to our brane. The strings are physically connected to the brane, and their gravitational vibrations curve our brane. Quantum information could only be transmitted or linked if the particles themselves were connected or linked in some way, as they would be through our brane. All matter in our universeand even light itself, which vibrates in only two gravity dimensions and one higher dimensionis moving through our brane, constantly in contact with it, and curving it in two gravity dimensions. No other theory can yet account for why quantum entanglement would be linked to gravity, including M-Theory where gravity is not linked to anything and passes right through our brane as if it were not even there.
Photons and strings of matter curve our brane as they vibrate. As they do so, they create “dimples” in our brane which allows strings to interact via those dimples. A photon will curve our brane in the two gravity dimensions it vibrates in. This curvature of our brane allows photons to interact with each string of matter’s curvature of our brane (in all three gravity dimensions). This allows a photon’s wavelength to decrease as it strikes a string of matter, transferring energy to the string of matter through its brane dimples. When photon dimples collide with other photon dimples, they impart the same amount of energy to the colliding photon as it does to the first photon, conserving their energy.
A membrane theory of gravity could also explain why E=MC2. As a string of matter vibrates, it curves our membrane in three dimensions. However, when a string of matter is converted into energy, the string will only vibrate in two of the three gravity dimensions, transferring the energy from the one gravity dimension removed into the two remaining gravity dimensions that travel at the speed of light, conserving the string’s energy. Therefore, the string’s energy remains constant as it vibrates in fewer gravity dimensions. E=MC2 simply illustrates the conservation of energy as the vibrations of a string in three gravity dimensions are transferred into the vibrations of a string in only two gravity dimensions that travel at the speed of light as matter is converted into light.
This theory could also explain why all fundamental strings have two types of spin. If, when the big splash occurred, the only strings available within our brane to transfer energy to were virtual strings that existed at the precise instant of the collision, then the energy of the collision would have been transferred directly to each pair of virtual strings. Each pair of strings would have been given the same amount of energy depending on their location within the brane. One pair, if given enough energy to become electrons, would split apart as their electromagnetic vibrations repelled each other, and one of the electrons would spin up, and the other would spin down. This occurs because the waves of each virtual string in the pair vibrate in the opposite direction of the other, because the pair would cancel each other out when they joined back together and disappeared if they had not been struck by the big splash.
(This paragraph is a 2010-2012 update.) Membrane gravity can even explain the so-called "Dark Flow" of our early universe. According to observation, young galaxies in our early universe are rapidly "flowing" in one direction. This is not unexpected. The collision that created our universe created enormous waves of our brane in the form of high gravity membrane vibrations. If our brane is in the shape of a tarus (an inner-tube or doughnut), when it was struck by the other brane in the collision that created our universe, It would vibrate back and forth with four areas of extremely increased dark matter at the four "anchor points" of the vibrating doughnut. These four points of vastly increased dark mater (because they are being vibrated so much more than the rest of space in-between these four points) will draw all galaxies in their direction, creating what we observe as "dark flow"!
Thus far, there hasn't been a single observation that brane gravity can't explain.
(This paragraph is a 2012 update, developed 2006-2009.)
If membrane gravity is correct, then all we really need to know is:
1) How quantum noise works and creates membranes in a vacuum
2) How to create virtual strings within those membranes, and
3) What happens when those virtual strings collide with each other, other strings, or are given energy through a membrane collision, and how that energy is transferred.
Nearly everything in our multiverse can be explained by these simple processes! Every string in our multiverse began life as a lowly virtual string. It really is just that simple. Once we fully understand these processes in an 11-dimensional membrane gravity framework, we will truly understand our multiverse and where it came from.
(2012 addition) "messenger particle" are not what we're taught in physics class, either. They are actually a pair of virtual strings that have energy transferred to them through collisions with other strings. If only one of those strings is collided with, the other one with barely any energy may become a neutrino.
(2013 addition) Our universe may not be as unpredictable as Quantum Mechanics postulates. The reason we can't pin down the location of an electron as it orbits an atom could be because it is changing shape as it is a string vibrating in ten spatial dimensions during its orbit, seven of which are hidden from us. This could be predicted with the proper string mathematics, and Einstein may have been right when he quipped "God does not play dice with the universe"!
A Study by Yves Couder bouncing droplets of silicon on a pool of vibrating silicon seems to be a great analogy for what is occurring at the quantum level. This is because the pool of vibrating silicon is just like our membrane, and their double-slit experiment shows how vibrating string photons behave as they pass through a double-slit apparatus! It's a great way of illustrating Brane gravity because we exist within a vibrating brane surface much like the surface of the vibrating silicon. Photons "brane dimples" will interact with the brane dimples created by matter's strings, causing the particle-like photons to interfere like waves! Check it out!
By the way, please give a hoot and don't pollute your students, friends and/or colleagues with the theories postulated here without giving credit as to their source. It took many years of hard work to develop them, and it would be greatly appreciated if you gave credit where credit is due. Many Thanks.
Membrane Gravity can also explain why "particles" decay in an atom-smashers. When a string "decays", it could be either colliding with virtual string pairs that just happened to be in their path, or even generating its own virtual string pairs which it transfers its energy to. It does this because it is such a violent vibration that it is unstable, and it disturbs spacetime enough to generate virtual string pairs and collide and transfer excess energy to them. Virtual strings are the answers to almost all our questions about how physics works. They were there at the beginning of our universe when our membrane collided with another, vibrating their gravity dimensions into quarks and electrons, and they're the way every new particle is collided into existence in places from atom smashers to stars to black holes.
One note on black holes and their information. Even if we are wrong about how black holes evaporate, their information is still retained anyway. The next time a membrane collides with ours, every black hole (if they haven't evaporated) will explode, showering its strings everywhere which, with the extra energy given to them from the collision, become antimatter and more energetic matter, much of which collides and aniahlates itself.
Back to the 2006 hypothesis..
It is impossible to tell how many membranes have evolved yet (like the one our universe was created within). The birth of a new universe could be a monthly or yearly event, depending on how many branes have evolved so far. If membrane gravity is correct, we likely live within a multiverse of branes moving through our higher dimensions. This system of strings and branes continues to evolve, getting ever more complex, and building upon itself.
According to membrane gravity, our universe will end in ice rather than in fire as its expansion is currently accelerating. Our universe will end up being a cold, dark place, but the galaxies still remaining in our ancient universe will cling together until near the time our brane expands back out to its original size, and they lose the dark matter holding them together. At this point, all our galaxies will have flown apart, sending their stars out into the darkness. The last of the stars will eventually die out, and long after that the remaining black holes will evaporate, and this universe will soon be ready for the next membrane collision to start the process all over again.
It should also be clear by now that our own universe is finite, not infinite, being contained within a single membrane of which there are a multitude. The multiverse, however, may or may not be infinite. It is big, but do not let that fool you. If there are still strings and branes being created out there today, then the multiverse could be finite as well, just very large and still growing.
These modifications of M-Theory avoid the apparent breakdown of physics we encounter during the creation of our universe at times before 10-43 seconds after the big bang, when the entire universe was supposedly compressed into a singularity. This new version of the big splash with membrane gravity does away with all the breakdowns of physics, infinite energies, and infinitely small sizes of the old big bang model. This leaves a much more stable and robust theory for the creation of our universe. It also predicts dark matter and dark energy and how they change over time which neither the standard model or M-Theory can do. It also explains why gravity curves spacetime and why spacetime acts similar to a fluid (as branes do). It predicts that the amount and type of matter created in the big splash will be directly proportional to the amount of energy necessary to create that matter. It predicts a “flat” universe (as we have observed). Among other recent observations it explains, it illustrates how quantum entanglement is linked to gravity, and it behaves just like the big bang after our universe goes through its phase change into atoms. It can also be tested by placing gravity wave telescopes in orbit around Saturn, and measuring our Sun’s gravitons, or by measuring the disappearing amounts of dark matter in our universe over time. Once rigorously tested, this Membrane Theory of Gravity could finally give physics a true “Theory of Everything” and successfully combine relativity with quantum mechanics.